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Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells (see "Lactic acid fermentation" below). Fermentation takes place in the absence of oxygen, when the electron transport chain is unusable. It is used by the cell not to generate energy directly, but to recycle NADH into NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue, as long as glucose is present. The energy generated by the glycolysis-fermentation pathway, a form of substrate-level phosphorylation, is small compared with that of oxidative phosphorylation. Fermentation consumes NADH, which in aerobic conditions might have been used to generate energy in the electron transport chain. For that reason, cells generally benefit from avoiding fermentation when oxygen is available. Exceptions include obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate oxygen.

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L'enzymologie est la branche de la biochimie qui étudie les enzymes. Différents domaines plus spécifiques peuvent être dégagés:

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Wikipedia 日本語 - フリー百科事典

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Wikipedia Português A enciclopédia livre

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A fermentação é um processo anaeróbio de transformação de uma substância em outra, produzida a partir de microorganismos, tais como bactérias e fungos, chamados nestes casos de fermentos. Exemplo de fermentação é o processo de transformação dos açúcares das plantas em álcool, tal como ocorre no processo de fabricação da cerveja, cujos  álcool etilico e CO2 (gás carbônico) são produzido a partir do consumo de açúcares presentes no malte, que é obtido através da cevada germinada.

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Dizionario inglese-italiano 1.0.012

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