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fermenting

Wikipedia English The Free Encyclopedia

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Fermentation
Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells (see "Lactic acid fermentation" below). Fermentation takes place in the absence of oxygen, when the electron transport chain is unusable. It is used by the cell not to generate energy directly, but to recycle NADH into NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue, as long as glucose is present. The energy generated by the glycolysis-fermentation pathway, a form of substrate-level phosphorylation, is small compared with that of oxidative phosphorylation. Fermentation consumes NADH, which in aerobic conditions might have been used to generate energy in the electron transport chain. For that reason, cells generally benefit from avoiding fermentation when oxygen is available. Exceptions include obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate oxygen.

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Wikipedia Deutsch Die freie Enzyklopädie

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Enzymologie
Die Enzymologie ist ein Teilgebiet der Biochemie, das sich mit den Gärungsvorgängen befasst, das heißt mit chemischen Veränderungen, die BakterienEnzyme und Hefen durch fermentative Stoffwechselvorgänge in organischen Verbindungen bewirken. Zur Zymologie gehört die Untersuchung der Enzyme, biologischer Katalysatoren, die aus Proteinen, also aus Aminosäuren bestehen.

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Enzymologie
L'enzymologie est la branche de la biochimie qui étudie les enzymes. Différents domaines plus spécifiques peuvent être dégagés:

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Wikipedia 日本語 - フリー百科事典

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発酵
発酵(はっこう)とは、一般に菌類酵母など)や、細菌乳酸菌など)といった、微生物の働きによりなどが分解され、アルコール有機酸炭酸ガスを生成する過程をいう。本来の用字は醱酵醗酵拡張新字体によるもの)であるが、第二次世界大戦後、当用漢字常用漢字の前身)に含まれていないために同音の漢字による書きかえにより発酵が代用語として用いられ、普及した。

発酵は酸化の一例でもある。


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Wikipedia Português A enciclopédia livre

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Fermentação
A fermentação é um processo anaeróbio de transformação de uma substância em outra, produzida a partir de microorganismos, tais como bactérias e fungos, chamados nestes casos de fermentos. Exemplo de fermentação é o processo de transformação dos açúcares das plantas em álcool, tal como ocorre no processo de fabricação da cerveja, cujos  álcool etilico e CO2 (gás carbônico) são produzido a partir do consumo de açúcares presentes no malte, que é obtido através da cevada germinada.

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