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Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DpPC) is a phospholipid (and a lecithin) consisting of two palmitic acids and is the major constituent of pulmonary surfactant. It is also the only surface active component of lung surfactant capable of lowering surface tension to near zero levels. DpPC is synthesized mainly through remodeling of phosphatidylcholine. It is thought that a lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) acyltransferase may play a critical role in its synthesis. The identity of this acyltransferase has not yet been confirmed. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is an exception to the rule of thumb that biological phospholipids are synthesized with a saturated fat at the R1 position and an unsaturated fat at the R2 position.
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