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Trench fever (also known as "Five day fever", "Quintan fever" (febris Quintana in Latin), "Urban trench fever") is a moderately serious disease transmitted by body lice. It infected armies in Flanders, France, Poland, Galicia, Italy, Salonika, Macedonia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt in World War I (three noted sufferers being the authors J.R.R. Tolkien, A. A. Milne, and C.S. Lewis), and the German army in Russia during World War I. From 1915 to 1918 between one-fifth and one-third of all British troops reported ill had trench fever while about one-fifth of ill German and Austrian troops had the disease. The disease persists among the homeless. Outbreaks have been documented, for example, in Seattle and Baltimore in the United States among injection drug users and in Marseille, France, and Burundi.
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A louse-borne disease first recognized in the trenches of World War I (and so called trench fever), again a major problem in the military in World War II, seen endemically in Mexico, N. Africa, E, Europe, and elsewhere. The cause, Rochalimaea quintana, is an unusual rickettsia that multiplies in the gut of the body louse. Transmission to people can occur by rubbing infected louse feces into abraded (scuffed) skin or conjunctiva (whites of the eyes). Onset of symptoms is sudden, with high fever, headache, back and leg pain and a fleeting rash. Recovery takes a month or more. Relapses are common. Quintan means recurring every 5 days and refers to the fever. Also called five-day fever. Other names include Wolhynia fever, shin bone fever, Meuse fever, His’ disease, His-Werner disease, Werner-His disease.
| Quintan fever in Arabic | Quintan fever in Farsi
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