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- 1095 – On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land.
- 1443 – Skanderbeg and his forces liberate Kruja in Middle Albania and raise the Albanian flag.
- 1520 – After navigating through a strait at the southern end of South America, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.
- 1582 – In Stratford-upon-Avon, William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway pay a £40 bond for their marriage license.
- 1627 – The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy has its greatest and last victory in the Battle of Oliva.
- 1660 – At Gresham College, 12 men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray decide to found what is later known as the Royal Society.
- 1666 – At least 3000 men of the Scottish Royal Army led by Tam Dalyell of the Binns defeat about 900 Covenanter rebels in the Battle of Rullion Green.
- 1729 – Natchez Indians massacre 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of modern-day Natchez, Mississippi.
- 1785 – The Treaty of Hopewell is signed.
- 1811 – Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73, premieres at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig.
- 1814 – The Times in London is for the first time printed by automatic, steam powered presses built by the German inventors Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer, signaling the beginning of the availability of newspapers to a mass audience.
- 1821 – Panama Independence Day: Panama separates from Spain and joins Gran Colombia.
- 1843 – Ka La Hui: Hawaiian Independence Day – The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.
- 1862 – American Civil War: In the Battle of Cane Hill, Union troops under General James G. Blunt defeat General John Marmaduke's Confederates.
- 1885 – Bulgarian victory in the Serbo-Bulgarian War preserves the Unification of Bulgaria.
- 1893 – Women vote in a national election for the first time: the New Zealand general election.
- 1895 – The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago's Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately 10 hours.
- 1905 – Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Féin as a political party with the main aim of establishing a dual monarchy in Ireland.
- 1907 – In Haverhill, Massachusetts, scrap-metal dealer Louis B. Mayer opens his first movie theater.
- 1909 – Sergei Rachmaninoff makes the debut performance of his Piano Concerto No. 3, considered to be one of the most technically challenging piano concertos in the standard classical repertoire.
- 1910 – Eleftherios Venizelos, leader of the Liberal Party, wins the Greek elections again.
- 1912 – Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
- 1914 – World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
- 1917 – The Estonian Provincial Assembly declares itself the sovereign power of Estonia.
- 1918 – Bukovina votes for the union with the Kingdom of Romania.
- 1919 – Lady Astor is elected as a Member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. She is the first woman to sit in the House of Commons. (Countess Markievicz, the first to be elected, refused to sit.)
- 1920 – Irish War of Independence: Kilmichael Ambush - The Irish Republican Army ambush a convoy of British Auxiliaries and kill seventeen.
- 1925 – The Grand Ole Opry begins broadcasting in Nashville, Tennessee as WSM Barn Dance.
- 1942 – In Boston, Massachusetts, a fire in the Cocoanut Grove nightclub kills 491 people.
- 1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran, Iran to discuss war strategy.
- 1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community.
- 1960 – Mauritania becomes independent of France.
- 1964 – Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 4 probe toward Mars.
- 1964 – Vietnam War: National Security Council members agree to recommend that U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of bombing in North Vietnam.
- 1965 – Vietnam War: In response to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson's call for "more flags" in Vietnam, Philippines President Elect Ferdinand Marcos announces he will send troops to help fight in South Vietnam.
- 1966 – Michel Micombero overthrows the monarchy of Burundi and makes himself the first president.
- 1971 – Fred Quilt, a leader of the Tsilhqot'in First Nation is severely beaten by Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers; he dies two days later.
- 1971 – Wasfi al-Tal, Prime Minister of Jordan, is assassinated by the Black September unit of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
- 1972 – Last executions in Paris, of the Clairvaux Mutineers, Roger Bontems and Claude Buffet, guillotined at La Sante Prison. (Bontems had been found innocent of murder by the court, but as Buffet's accomplice is condemned to death anyway.) The chief executioner is Andre Obrecht.
- 1975 – East Timor declares its independence from Portugal.
- 1979 – Air New Zealand Flight 901, a DC-10 operated sightseeing flight over Antarctica, crashes into Mount Erebus, killing all 257 people on board.
- 1980 – Iran–Iraq War: Operation Morvarid – Over 70% of Iraqi Navy was destroyed by Iranian Navy in The Persian Gulf. The Iranian Navy's Day.
- 1981 – Our Lady of Kibeho: Schoolchildren in Kibeho, Rwanda, experience the first of a series of Marian apparitions.
- 1987 – South African Airways Flight 295 crashes into the Indian Ocean, killing all 159 people on-board.
- 1989 – Cold War: Velvet Revolution – In the face of protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announces it will give up its monopoly on political power.
- 1991 – South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia.
- 2002 – Suicide bombers blow up an Israeli-owned hotel in Mombasa, Kenya; their colleagues fail in their attempt to bring down Arkia Israel Airlines Flight 582 with surface-to-air-missiles.
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- imieniny: Andrzej, Bazyli, Eustachy, Feliks, Gościrad, Grzegorz, Jakub, Krescencjusz, Krescens, Krescenty, Kwieta, Lesław, Lesława, Manswet, Piotr, Radowit, Rufus, Sostenes, Stefan, Teodora, Tristan, Urban, Walerian, Zdziesław i Zdzisław
- Albania - Święto Niepodległości
- Czad - Dzień Proklamacji Republiki
- Mauretania - Święto Niepodległości
- Panama - Święto Niepodległości
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